A Statewide Collaborative Supporting NGSS Implementation in California
Designed to support the implementation of the California Next Generation Science Standards (CA NGSS), the CA NGSS Collaborative was formed in 2015. The CA NGSS Collaborative is a joint effort of the California Department of Education, California Science Project, California Science Teachers Association, CCSESA, and the K-12 Alliance @WestEd. Together the Collaborative develops and delivers the statewide NGSS Rollouts and in 2018 developed and released the California NGSS Toolkit for Instructional Material Evaluation (CA NGSS TIME).
CA NGSS Collaborative Resources
- CA NGSS Rollout #6: Environmental Literacy (Fall, 2019) - Dates and Locations
- CA NGSS TIME Toolkit Trainings (ongoing) - Calendar of Events
See tabs in the resources archive below for more information.
- CA NGSS High School Summit (May 2018)
- Accelerating Into NGSS #1.5: (Winter 2017 - Spring 2018)
- CA NGSS Rollout #4: Using the CA Science Framework (April - December 2017)
- CA NGSS Rollout #3: From Transition to Implementation (April - December 2016)
- CA NGSS Rollout #2: From Awareness to Transition (April - December 2015)
- CA NGSS Rollout #1: CA NGSS Awareness (April - December 2014)
About Rollout #1
Rollout #1 was presented in 2014 and consisted of the following sessions:
NGSS 101 – Become aware of the National Research Council’s A Framework for K-12 Science Education and the development, intent, and design of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) adopted by California. Learn how to read the architecture of the NGSS and example key components.
NGSS 102 – Delve deeper into the intent and design of NGSS and some of its supporting appendices, analyze key instructional shifts, and reflect on how to adapt available resources to assist in planning for instructional changes.
Performance Expectations – Understand the shift in the NGSS from content knowledge to a focus on performance expectations. Analyze a learning progression for success during classroom formative assessments or district benchmark assessments of the PE.
NGSS Implementation Tool – Learn how to use a tool for developing a unit of instruction that creates a conceptual flow for building student understanding and identifies Performance Expectations, Disciplinary Core Ideas, Science and Engineering Practices and Crosscutting Concepts that support that understanding.
Connecting NGSS and CCSS – Learn how to use the Science Literacy Professional Learning Module as a resource to help K-12 teachers better understand how literacy (speaking, listening, writing and reading) deepen student understanding of science.
Middle School Progressions – Explore the State Board of Education’s preferred integrated standards for middle school and the alternative discipline-specific model. Discuss possible implementation strategies for the integrated model.
Model Lesson Exploration – Experience a sample lesson that demonstrates the NGSS “shift” with examples at primary, upper elementary, and secondary (middle school and high school). [Chromatography, Engineering Challenge to get the dyes separated]
Administrator Strand – Learn how to support the implementation of NGSS at your school site and in the district.
Evaluation and Action Plan –Share learnings from the conference with your district team and plan next steps for district leaders, teachers and other stakeholders.
About Rollout #2
Rollout #2 was presented in 2015 and consisted of the following sessions:
Administrator Strand – Learn how to support the implementation of NGSS at your school site and in the district.
Engineering Strand - Learn how content specific performance expectations are linked to engineering and how engineering helps students to learn at the nexus of the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas and the Cross Cutting Concepts. [Making a windmill, engineering design process to strengthen the use of science knowledge]
K-2 Lesson - Apply the tool to a learning sequence for grades K-2 and experience what the learning looks like in a classroom over a multi-day lesson. Discuss with grade level colleagues how this applies to your classroom and your instruction. [Erosion - The Earth’s surfaces can be identified, observed and influenced by humans.]
3-5 Lesson - Apply the tool to a learning sequence for grades 3-5 and experience what the learning looks like in a classroom over a multi-day lesson. Discuss with grade level colleagues how this applies to your classroom and your instruction. [Renewable and non-renewable energy: Energy from the sun is transferred and transformed through Earth’s systems]
6-8 Lesson - Apply the tool to a learning sequence for grades 6-8 and experience what the learning looks like in a classroom over a multi-day lesson. Discuss with grade level colleagues how this applies to your classroom and your instruction. [Transfer of energy through air to different types of masses - Motion and complex interactions of air masses are a result of differential energy and result in changes in weather conditions.]
9-12 Lesson - Apply the tool to a learning sequence for grades 9-12 and experience what the learning looks like in a classroom over a multi-day lesson. Discuss with grade level colleagues how this applies to your classroom and your instruction. [Ocean currents - Earth’s climate is constantly changing, ocean currents]
High School Model - Review the policy issues related to the implementation of NGSS at the high school level. Explore and compare sample HS course sequences that might be appropriate for your district. Discuss strategies for leading school/district discussions with stakeholders about which model(s) are best for your context.
NGSS 103 - Engage with the Conceptual Shifts to refine your understanding of the NGSS vision for science education for all students. Learn about the importance of developing a professional learning plan to prepare teachers for the NGSS. Discuss the types of administrative and system supports necessary to implement these learning plans.
Teaching Through the Practices - Experience the coherent integration of the NGSS Scientific and Engineering Practices from the observation of a phenomenon to constructing an explanation for those observations. This session focuses on three practices: 1) developing and revising models, 2) engaging in argument from evidence, and 3) constructing explanations, and it provides instructional strategies for each practice. [Ice cube melting on wood and metal; and candle burning inside a jar]
The Tool: Designing for Learning - Building on Roll Out #1, incorporate a new tool to design a learning sequence that addresses the 3D aspect of the NGSS. Learn how to order concepts from a conceptual flow and Phenomenon-Question-Practice (PQP) chart into an instructional sequence that resonates with the 5Es (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) instructional model.
The 3rd Dimension - Crosscutting Concepts - Learn how the seven crosscutting concepts of the Next Generation Science Standards deepen understanding of the Practices and Core Ideas and lead to productive inquiry. This hands-on workshop will explore ways to help students use the crosscutting concepts to think like scientists and engineers. [Building a water tower]
About Rollout #3
Rollout #3 was presented in 2016 and consisted of the following sessions:
CA NGSS Assessment Update - The CDE will be sharing information on the development and progress of the new CA NGSS student assessments.
Environmental Principles & Concepts (EP&C) - Overview of how EP&C are integrated into NGSS
Tool P: Administrator Strand Observing Implementation - The Administrator Strand is designed to provide PD aimed at the leadership work of administrators. The session includes an overview of the shifts of NGSS and then provides training on the use of two observational protocols designed to create awareness of supports needed for the implementation of the NGSS. Opportunities to utilize these protocols are embedded into the Roll Out as well as follow up session.
Tool E: Teacher Strand Putting it Together - Building on Tool A, B, C, and D, Tool E helps teachers analyze their resources for alignment to the NGSS, and inclusion in a 5 E learning sequence.
Tool E to K-2 Learning Sequence - Apply Tool E to see how a teacher planned a learning sequence and then experience it as a learner.
Tool E to 3-5 Learning Sequence - Apply Tool E to see how a teacher planned a learning sequence and then experience it as a learner.
Tool E to 6-8 Learning Sequence - Apply Tool E to see how a teacher planned a learning sequence and then experience it as a learner.
Tool E to 9-12 Life Science Learning Sequence - Apply Tool E to see how a teacher planned a learning sequence and then experience it as a learner.
Tool E to 9-12 Physical Science Learning Sequence - Apply Tool E to see how a teacher planned a learning sequence and then experience it as a learner.
Deepening Understanding of Modeling in the Elementary Classroom - Scientific modeling is an essential Science and Engineering Practice in NGSS. After experiencing an engaging science lesson, participants will learn how to use NGSS Evidence Statement to support the planning of three dimensional assessments and instruction.
Deepening Understanding of Modeling in the Secondary Classroom - Scientific modeling is an essential Science and Engineering Practice in NGSS. After experiencing an engaging science lesson, participants will learn how to use NGSS Evidence Statement to support the planning of three dimensional assessments and instruction.
Table Talks - Lunch opportunities to have follow-up conversations on topics of choice.
Admin Planning for Communication - The first session of the Administrator Strand is designed to provide a quick overview of the shifts needed for NGSS implementations, as well as, introduce two observation protocols aimed at helping to identify the support needed by administrators in implementing NGSS into their school/district. The session will provide opportunities to learn about and determine how the two protocols will be utilized by administrators during the Roll Out. The two observation protocols were designed by two initiatives charged with developing and disseminating processes to help California implement NGSS into the state school system.
Science and Common Core ELA - Experience the authentic use of CCSS ELA to obtain and communicate science understanding. The integration benefits learning in both disciplines.
Exploring Integration at Middle School - This session is designed for those who have selected, or are strongly leaning towards, the integrated progression for middle school. It will give you an opportunity of what it means to be integrated, and how to use phenomena and use models from the draft framework to think about integration.
High School Models - Review the policy issues related to the implementation of NGSS at the high school level. Explore and compare sample HS course sequences that might be appropriate for your district. Discuss strategies for leading school/district discussions with stakeholders about which model(s) are best for your context. This session is an updated version of the High School Sequence session offered at Rollout II taking into account assessment decisions and examining Achieve's Accelerated Model.
Cross Cutting Concepts: Deepening Our Understanding - Experience the impact on thinking as different cross cutting concepts are used as a lens for understanding.
Engineering in Life Science - Think engineering is only appropriate in the Physical sciences? Come learn how engineering can drive engaged learning in life science and biology. Experience how an engineering and science sequence can be structured for learning in both.
About Rollout #4
Rollout #4 was presented in 2017 and consisted of the following sessions:
Framework Introduction - The CA Science Framework is a comprehensive guidance document to help implement the CA NGSS by including grade level descriptions, snapshots, vignettes and connections to the Environmental Principles and Concepts, the California ELA, ELD and math standards and engineering practices.
Phenomena - Phenomena-based instruction is a primary feature of the NGSS classroom. Learn what phenomena are, how to identify useful phenomena, and how phenomena-based instruction supports three dimensional learning.
- TK-2 Phenomenon
- 3-5 Phenomenon
- 6-8 Integrated Phenomenon
- 6-8 Disc Phenomenon
- HS Earth Physics Phenomena
- HS Earth Bio Phenomena
Phenomena-Based Learning Sequences - NGSS learning sequences, based on vignettes or snapshots in the California Framework for science, begin with phenomenon and include explorations leading to explaining the phenomenon. After experiencing a grade span appropriate learning sequence (K-2, 3-5, 6-8 discipline specific or integrated, 9-12 earth-biology or earth-physics) participants will discuss how the sequence provided understanding of the standards as well as support a variety of learners. Participants will become aware of the location of additional resources for teachers in the California Framework. [Earthquakes - Waves transfer energy and information; earthquakes are evidence of plate tectonics and large-scale systems interactions. Pika - Climate change impacts the stability of populations and ecosystems.]
- Learning Sequence Shell
- TK-2 Learning Sequence [Explore pushes and pulls with different activities with balls and blocks.]
- 3-5 Learning Sequence [Interactive earth systems, rain shadow on California mountain ranges.]
- 6-8 Integrated Learning Sequence [Clipbirds - The history of Earth reveals that events over space and time influence the patterns and processes observed in nature.]
- 6-8 Disc Specific Learning Sequence [Moon phases - Objects in the universe move in apparent patterns in relationship to each other.]
- HS Earth Physics Learning Sequence [Earthquakes - Waves transfer energy and information; earthquakes are evidence of plate tectonics and large-scale systems interactions.]
- HS Earth Bio Learning Sequence [Pika - Climate change impacts the stability of populations and ecosystems.]
State Assessment - The pilot version of the California Science Test (CAST) will be administered in Spring 2017. CDE representatives will explain the format of the assessment and give updates about the future of statewide science assessments in California.
Classroom Assessments - Classroom assessment is critical to quality teaching and learning. Participants will debrief the grade-level learning sequence in terms of opportunities for formative assessment, experience a three-dimensional summative assessment, and make connections to the Framework Assessment Chapter.
- Classroom Assessment Shell
- TK-2 Classroom Assessment
- 3-5 Classroom Assessment
- 6-8 Integrated Assessments
- 6-8 Disc Specific Assessments
- HS Earth Physics Assessment
- HS Earth Bio Assessment
Administration - Site level and district administrators need to have the skills to implement, evaluate, and identify NGSS resources in order to provide access to all standards for all students. In this session, participants will review the NGSS-CA Frameworks as they relate to access and equity and implementing high-quality science instruction: Professional learning, leadership, and support. LCAP goals will be discussed as they relate to implementing state standards and providing access to all learners.
Elementary Connections - Provide participants with a common experience with a CA Science Framework to identify the science connections to ELA, math, and ELD and how those standards can be taught through science. Using a framework vignette, participants will be given time to delve deeply into a lesson and design targeted ELD, math, and literacy connections. [Explore scientific literacy development by investigating how gas compressed in a syringe]
HS Course Sequence Models - This session will help participants engage in meaningful conversation and learning that is necessary to analyze diferent high school models to prepare students for college, career, and life skills required by NGSS.
Beyond 3D - The new science framework calls on teachers to go beyond the three dimensions by integrating California’s Environmental Principles & Concepts (EP&Cs) and engineering design into science instruction. Participants will actively investigate the EP&Cs and apply them as part of a hands-on engineering design activity. [Developing a water filtration system to experience engineering, science and EP&C]
Professional Learning Design - Examine the Professional Learning chapter of the CA Science Framework and apply the guidance and ideas to building a professional learning model that can inform your work on LCAPs, selection of learning opportunities, and science professional learning priorities for the next several years of NGSS implementation.
Access and Equity - Develop an awareness of the “Science for All” vision of NGSS and become familiar with resources within the CA Framework.
Intro to NGSS - Designed for people new to NGSS, this session provides an overview of the NGSS architecture, shifts required to teach phenomenon based three dimensional learning experiences, and ways to begin implementation.
About Accelerating Into NGSS #1.5
Accelerating Into NGSS #1.5 was presented in 2018 and consisted of the following sessions:
Grade-level Learning Sequences
- K-2 Lesson - [Pushes & Pulls]
- 3-5 Lesson - [Rain shadow on the California mountain range]
- MS Lesson - [Modeling an explanation for the phases of the moon]
- HS Lesson - [Explaining the decline in population of the Pika as a result of climate change]
PEs - This session is designed to familiarize participants with NGSS architecture by briefly analyzing their learning sequence session for each NGSS component (SEP, CCC, DCI, EP&C, CCSS).
Phenomena and SEPs - This session helps participants to better understand the importance of phenomena-based instruction and provides opportunity to explore the Science and Engineering Practices as one of the three dimensions of the NGSS and analyze the learning sequence in terms of phenomena and the Science and Engineering Practices.
Crosscutting Concepts - This session provides experiences to deepen understanding of Crosscutting Concepts and build awareness for the intentional design of using CCC during the learning sequence.
- CCC K-2 - [Observing condensation on a glass with iced water using the CCC as a lense for developing critical questions]
- CCC 3-5 - [Observing condensation on a glass with iced water using the CCC as a lense for developing critical questions]
- CCC MS - [Observing condensation on a glass with iced water using the CCC as a lense for developing critical questions]
- CCC HS - [Observing condensation on a glass with iced water using the CCC as a lense for developing critical questions]
Administrators - Deepen your understanding of the shifts that are required with NGSS for teachers and students from an administrator’s perspective. Opportunities for reflection are provided on the roles of all leaders during the NGSS implementation and how to support teacher leaders in their role in leading this work with their colleagues.
Literacy K-12 - Provide an experience to demonstrate how literacy strategies for communication and language development support deepening of science content and provide authentic literacy experiences in the science discipline.
Engineering K-5 - Experience the NGSS Engineering Design Core Ideas of defining a problem, designing a solution, and optimizing that design solution. Learn how content specific performance expectations are linked to engineering and how engineering helps students to learn at the nexus of the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and the Cross Cutting Concepts. [Build a windmill to lift a weight to experience the engineering design process]
Engineering 6-12 - Think engineering is only appropriate in the physical sciences? Come learn how engineering can drive engaged learning in life science and biology. Experience how an engineering and science sequence can be structured for learning in both. [Engineering a microscope - Design a microscope with a structure that functions to help light focus on cells at 100 times magnification to diagnose diseases in developing countries.]
High School Model - This session engages participants in meaningful conversations that are necessary to analyze different high school course sequences including the CA Science Framework three-course, four-course, and district-created models.
Middle School Model - This session is intended to provide opportunities for conversations about the different middle school course models for the CA NGSS. Participants use rationale from the California Department of Education and the California Science Framework for the middle grades to build understanding. Participants analyze considerations and challenges for selection of a middle school model in their context.
Tool E - Tool E helps teachers analyze their current resources for alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards and inclusion in a 5E learning sequence.
The CA NGSS High School Summit was presented in May of 2018
The CA NGSS High School Summit was offered in the May of 2018 by the CA NGSS Collaborative in partnership districts that were leading the way in full implementation of the NGSS at the high school level. District teams in the transition stages of implementation were invited to attend the event and were provided a unique opportunity to better understand the vision of the NGSS, maximize conversations about successes and challenges of moving forward with full implementation of the NGSS, time to network with and learn from others that had designed and selected course models, written course descriptions and were building district capacity in the advancement of NGSS implementation.
Resources available include a full agenda for the two-day summit, presentation slide deck (with embeded notes), and resources provided during the event.
CA NGSS TIME Toolkit
CA NGSS TIME is California’s Science Toolkit for Instructional Material Evaluation. CA NGSS TIME Toolkit was presented in 2018 and consisted of the following sessions:
CA NGSS TIME Presentations - The implementation of the CA NGSS TIME is an iterative process and requires multiple perspectives and lenses. The introduction provides the purpose and rationale for using the CA NGSS TIME and includes short excerpts from the CA Science Framework that introduce users to CA NGSS terminology and reinforce the instructional shifts for the CA NGSS.
Section 1: Develop District Lens - Preparing the team to evaluate instructional materials based on the district’s unique needs is an important part of the adoption process because it can assist adoption committees in selecting the best possible programs for their particular student population. Section 1 provides support for forming a district adoption committee and establishing a profile of the district’s needs and resources. The District Lens can serve as a guide that will lead to an informed perspective regarding the needs of students and teachers in this adoption cycle. This Section needs to be completed by each district and should be led by the district adoption committee chair.
Section 2: Prescreen - The prescreen process narrows the field of programs to the most promising options. The prescreen process does not provide a thorough vetting of resources and is not sufficient to support claims of being designed for the NGSS. Section 2 begins broadly in scope and moves toward a more targeted examination of CA NGSS alignment. The tasks in section 2 include a broad look at each program to help districts determine which programs move forward in the adoption process. It is recommended that a small subgroup of the district adoption committee completes the prescreen process. Prior to the activities in section 2, the district needs to obtain copies of instructional materials. An essential component of Section 2 is a professional learning session that calibrates teams and models the prescreen process to be used for instructional materials under consideration. These professional learning sessions will be led by county partnership teams. Districts should plan to attend a CA NGSS TIME professional learning session prior to completing the prescreen process. A facilitator script and presentation are included in CA NGSS TIME for adoption committees that do not attend.
Section 3: Paper Screen - The Paper Screen process gives the adoption committee an opportunity to examine instructional materials prior to piloting programs. The whole committee uses rubrics to conduct a deeper, more thorough investigation of each of the programs selected in section 2: prescreen. An essential component of section 3: Paper Screen is for the adoption committee to engage in a shared professional learning experience in order to calibrate themselves using resources not under review. This essential component of section 3: Paper Screen should not be skipped. Using evidence and rubrics, this deeper dive leads districts through the process they will use for determining which programs to pilot. These professional learning sessions will be led by county partnership teams. Districts should plan to attend a CA NGSS TIME professional learning session prior to completing the Paper Screen process. Facilitator scripts and presentations are included in CA NGSS TIME for adoption committees that do not attend.
Section 4: Plot Materials - The Pilot Materials process allows for analyzing instructional materials while using them in classrooms. The instructional materials used in this process are chosen based on section 3: Paper Screen. This gives a more thorough analysis of each program under review and allows for additional evidence from teachers and students to be used in section 5: Select and recommend.
Section 5: Select and Recommend - The Select and Recommend process provides a decision-making framework to support the adoption committee in coming to consensus about the instructional materials to be adopted. Evidence and data from sections 1–4 is used as support for selections.
Section 6: Implement - Provides tools to support planning and monitoring the ongoing implementation of adopted instructional materials.
Coming January 2020
Rollout #6 was presented in 2019 and consisted of the following sessions:
Call to Action - Environmental learning and science go hand in hand in providing youth with rich opportunities to connect to local environments, see the relevance of science in their lives, build scientific and environmental literacy, and provide empowering opportunities to engage as members and change makers of their communities. Youth from the local community present a call to action to inspire educators in positively shaping the world of today and tomorrow by providing opportunities for such powerful learning.
K-8 Educators - Grade Span Lessons and Debrief - Utilizing California’s Environmental Principles and Concepts (EP&C) as a focus, participants experience a phenomenon-based gradespan appropriate learning sequence (K-2, 3-5, 6-8) that includes explorations and sense-making strategies leading to an explanation of the phenomenon. Understanding the phenomenon combined with EP&Cs allows to further identify actions that can be taken to positively impact the local environment. The deep debrief of the learning sequence includes analysis and discussion of the design elements connecting learning not only to the EP&Cs but also to the three dimensions of CA NGSS, the needs of diverse learners, and the CA Standards for English and Language Arts and Literacy, English Language Development, and Mathematics Standards as appropriate.
K-8 Administrators - Introduction to Observation Tool & Debrief - K-8 Administrators will be introduced to a classroom observation tool to use as they observe a grade span lesson. In the afternoon, they will debrief what they noticed and discuss how they can instructionally support their teachers. High School Administrators will participate in the High School Summit to better understand instructional shifts and to learn from those high schools that are successfully integrating NGSS and Environmental Literacy for all students.
9-12 Educators & Administrators - High School Summit - Environmental Literacy is an integral part of addressing the NGSS in high school science instruction. This day-long session aims to provide an example of how the EP&Cs have been intentionally included into the curriculum for the Chemistry in the Earth System course. The sample lesson has a chemistry focus, but can serve as a model for other Life Science and Physical Science courses being offered in California. In addition, we will have a panel discussion, Q&A, and time to work in subject specific collaborative groups to think about how the EP&Cs can be addressed in your subject area.
Classroom Showcase - Inspiration from classrooms across California showcase the power of connecting science with environmental learning. When classroom instruction utilizes locally relevant environmentally focused phenomena, the NGSS vision of all standards all students becomes reality. Participants will debrief the potential for increases in student engagement, academic achievement, equitable access to science, and opportunities to make science authentically and culturally relevant.
K-12 Educators & Administrators - Making Phenomena Local - Phenomena-based instruction is a primary feature of the NGSS classroom. In this session, participants will identify examples of local, relevant environmental phenomena to support student learning.
K-12 Educators & Administrators - Community-Based Partners - Fostering student engagement in investigations of their communities supports one of the key instructional shifts called for by NGSS and the new Science Framework—science that is relevant to local communities and student interests. Participants will actively engage with local organizations to discuss and examine ideas for collaboration as thought partners, in providing students access to three-dimensional learning experiences, enhancing in-school and out-of-school learning opportunities.
K-8 Educators - Planning from Phenomena to Action - Use a local, environmental phenomena as a lens to develop a learning sequence with a focus on the CA EP&Cs. Using a local environmental phenomenon, participants will learn a process to develop a student action centered 5E.
K-12 Administrators Supporting CA NGSS and Environmental Literacy - Administrators will discuss their visions for global citizenry, how to use leverage points in the system, e.g., CAST, dashboard, LCAP and other resources to begin planning action steps toward that vision.
High School NGSS and CCSS Mathematics Standards
This resource was developed by the CA NGSS Collaborative for comparison of CA NGSS and CCSS Mathematics standards by courses recommend in the content frameworks.
Insights from the CA NGSS Collaborative
The following was authored by CA NGSS Collaborative members to provide guidance related to CA NGSS implementation.
- Guidance for Transitioning to CA NGSS - Implementation Pathway Model
Spiegel, J., Quan, A., & Shimojyo, Y. (2014), Planning Professional Learning Using the NGSS Implementation Pathway Model. California Classroom Science, (26)3.
- Guidance on what do if you are waiting to or won’t adopt science instructional materials
Hagan, W., Tupper, D. & A’Hearn, P. (2018), Science Instructional Materials: What to Do Between Now and January 2019. California Classroom Science, (31)1.
- What is CA NGSS TIME?
Henriques, L., Topps, J., Simani, M., & Murphy-Shaw, M. (2019), CA NGSS TIME: California’s Toolkit for Instructional Materials Evaluation. California Classroom Science, (31)4.
- Guidance for Transitioning to CA NGSS - Implementation Pathway Model